Monday, November 24, 2008

Star Plots

A star plot analyzes data of variables in a multivariate data set shaped like a star. The star consists of spokes which each represent a different variable in the set of data. This star plot was created by NASA.

Box Plot

Box plots are a tool for displaying location and variation in data sets. The box plot shown compares four machines' energy output and which one has an effect on energy regarding location
and variation.


A histogram is a graphical display of frequencies shown as bars. This is a horizontal histogram showing what proportion of students fall into each of the grade categories on the exam.

Saturday, November 22, 2008

Parallel Coordinate Graph

A parallel coordinate graph is used to plot large multivariate sets of data. One line in a parallel coordinate graph connects a series of variable of different values such as in the one depicted.

Triangular Plot

A triangle plot is a graph of three variables in the shape of a triangle. This triangular plot is a display of election votes.


A Windrose is a projection that shows both the average wind direction and speed of a location. This particular windrose shows the wind speed in meters per second.


A Climograph is a graphical depiction of the monthly precipitation and temperature conditions for a selected place. The precipitation is displayed on the bar graph shown of Memphis, Tennessee.

Population Profile

A Population Profile shows the number of people as a function of their ages. This population profile shows the growth curve for Mobile County in 1998.


A Scatterplot uses coordinates to display values for data. The data is displayed as a collection of points with a position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis. This scatterplot shows a comparison between the SAT versus the Beta test.

Index Value Plot

An Index Value Plot can help to show inconsistencies between information and their sources. This Index Value Plot displays the current streamflow with historical streamflow for the United States.

Lorenze Curve

A Lorenze Curve illustrates the inequality of something in relation to the line of equality. This Lorenze curve displays the inequal distribution of income in United States households.

Bilateral Graph

Bilateral Graphs show and compare the political and cultural relations between two states or countries. This bilateral graph shows the comparisons of opinion with regards to the best leadership of China.

Nominal Area Choropleth Map

Nominal Choropleth maps organize and show data that is based on a nominal category rather than one that is capable of being ranked. This particular nominal area choropleth map shows which minority group has the highest percentage population in each one of the 50 states.

Unstandardized Choropleth Map

Unstandardized Choropleth Maps utilize raw numbers when displayed. Because of this fact, the data that is displayed may not be averaged and is harder to visualize such as on this map shown.

Standardized Choropleth Map

A Standardized Map shows the population density per square mile. This particular choropleth map shows the density of the United States and shows that the mid-west states seem to have the least population density as oppose to the east coast states.

Thursday, November 20, 2008

Univariate Choropleth Map

Univariate choropleth maps are those that show a single variable and only one set of data. This map shows the percentages of the population that voted Republican in the previous election. The map goes from 0% to 100% Democrat in blue or 0% to 100% Republican in red--leaving purple in the middle of the range.

Bivariate Choropleth Map

Bivariate maps display the realtionship of two variables. This map shows the increase from the divorce rate in 1980 to the divorce rate in 1990. It also has a cartographic animation that flashes between the rate in the individual states to a map that also shows the divorce rate by individual counties within each state.

Unclassed Choropleth Map

Unclassed choropleth maps assign color shadings in proportion to the data values so that the choropleth maps do not have to classify the data. Unclassed choropleth maps are not very widely accepted due to the fact that they are claimed to lose the ability of directing the message of communication. This Flash Density map of the United States shows the amount of lightning flashes per square km per year and proves that Florida is in fact the lightning capital of the world.

Classed Choropleth Map

In a Classed Choropleth Map it is important to determine the height and shading or color intensity of the bar for each map classed. By creating a classed frequency legend including and frequency histogram, frequency curve, and shading it is much easier to identify such as in this Census map.

Range Graded Proportional Circle Map

Range Graded Proportional Circle Maps use evenly graded circles to display data. In this particular map of the Great Lakes' population, the dots grow larger where they simulate the larger parts of the city. There are only a certin number of sizes that can be used as oppose to variable maps which can show infinate size variation.

Continuously Variable Proportional Circle Map

A Continuously Variable Proportional Circle Map is a proportional circle map which uses circles to create point data which relates the scales to the specific data. The circles are in proportion to the variable that is being measured.


A Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangle is an aerial photograph that has been geometrically corrected so that the scale of the photograph is uniform. An orthophoto can be used to measure true distances because it is an accurate depiction of the earth's surface. They are most commonly used in the creation of a Geographic Information System.


A Digital Elevation Model is a digital representation of ground surface terrain. A DEM can be represented as a raster and are commonly built using remote sensing techniques. They may also be built by land surveying and are the most common basis for digitally-produced relief maps.


A Digital Line Graph is a form of digital map developed by United States Geological Survey. They show users large scale digital maps ranging from a variety of categoriessuch as transportation, contours, and public land survey boundaries as shown on this map.


DRG maps are Digital Raster Graphics. These scanned images of a U.S. Geological Survey are a standard series topographic map. The image inside the map neatline is georeferenced to the surface of the earth and fit to the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The map is scanned at a minimum resolution of 250 dots per inch.

Monday, November 17, 2008


An isopleth is the area represented by an isoconcentration on a graph or map. These area have equal or corresponding values with regard to certain variables as shown.


An isopach is a line drawn on a map through points of equal thickness of a designated unit. Coal and other rocks are the most commonly measured.


An isohyet is a line connecting points of equal precipitation on a map. These isohyets are represented through contour lines on weather maps.


This map is an excellent depiction of an isotach. An isotach is a line on a weather map or chart connecting points where equal wind velocities have been recorded.


An isobar is a line on a weather map that connects points of equal atmospheric pressure. On a weather map, isobars extend around areas of high and low pressure just like in the picture shown.


Light Detecting and Ranging is an optical remote sensing technology that measures properties of scattered light to find range and other information of a distant target. This is NOAA's Aerial Photo of World Trade Center Image taken by NOAA's Cessna Citation Jet on Sept. 23, 2001 from an altitude of 3,300 feet using a Leica/LH systems RC30 camera.

Doppler Radar

Doppler radar uses the doppler effect of returned echoes from targets to measure their radial velocity. Weather radars process velocities of precipitation by Pulse-Doppler radar technique, on top of their intensities to better analyze predicted weather.

Black and White Aerial Photo

Black and white aerial photographs can be very beneficial in showing landforms, vegetation, and resources. They make landscape features more easily understood on a regional, continental, and even global scale.

Infrared Aerial Photo

Infrared film and infrared digital sensors are sensitive to a certain part of the light spectrum and by careful filtration and processing of films, they can provide extremely valuable information. It can be used specifically to document changes in the environment and the health of forests, wetlands, bays and oceans.

Cartographic Animation

Cartographic animations are incredibly effective ways of visualizing and representing geographic phenomena. They can more easily show change in a land mass over the course of a period of time and location.

Statistical Map

A statistical map gives a standard statistic with regards to a specific period of time. This particular statistical map shows the numbers of crimes in specific cities and how much they varied from one year to the next.

Cartogram Map

Cartogram maps scale the area of each country in proportion to its population. The shape and relative location of each country is retained to as large an extent as possible, but a large amount of distortion tends to always exist.

Flow Map

Flow maps are commonly used to show movement from one location to another. The number of people in a migration, the amount of goods being traded, or the number of packets in a network are just a few examples of flow maps. They are beneficial in reducing visual clutter by merging edges.

Isoline Map

An isoline map uses continuos lines to join points of the same value. It is commonly used to portray the weather such as highs and lows in temperatures or levels of precipitation in a particular area.

Proportional Circle Map

Proportional circle maps display a data set by varying the size of the circles in relation to the values of the various data. The greater the value of the spotlighted statistic, the larger the circle used to represent that data.

Choropleth Map

In choropleth maps, the areas are shaded or patterned in proportion to the measurement of statistical data being displayed such as population or income. It makes it easier to visualize how widely a measurement can vary in a given geographic area or region.

Dot Distribution Map

Dot distribution maps portray quantitative data as a dot which represents a number of the population found within the boundary of a geographic area. The pattern of distributed dots reflect the general locations where the smallest and largest populations occur. In addition, the pattern and number of dots within a geographic area reveal the density of the population.

Propaganda Map

This propaganda map displays what is expected Europe would look like if Germany had won World War I. Propaganda maps commonly show the artist's feelings on a particular subject matter and what they feel could have or should have happened.

Hypsometric Map

Hypsometric maps represent the terrain shown through shading colors. The cartographer has to choose the number of different color classes along with their limiting contour lines and the colors. Light colors are the most common and "higher is brighter" is generally true in hypsometric mapping.